Plombières Agreement | Italian history  | dansunah.info
in July he arranged with Emperor Napoleon III for French military intervention in Cavour's goal was the complete expulsion of Austrian troops from the. the Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont); signed in July in Plombières, France, by the French emperor Napoleon III and Prime Minister C. B. Cavour of Sardinia. Cavour, a committed English-style liberal, believes in free markets and July 20, Napoleon III and Cavour meet at Plombières; the Emperor.
Britain and France break off diplomatic relations with Naples.Who Was Napoleon III? AP Euro Bit by Bit #32
February 21, the Piedmontese government sends a memorandum to Napoleon III in which it proposes to raise "the Italian question" in the Paris Peace Conference which is about to assemble. February 25, the Congress of Paris opens, attended by the Powers which participated in the Crimean War but includes Prussia.
Piedmont, represented by Cavour, protests the presence of foreign troops Austrian in the Papal States. The western powers show sympathy for the Piedmontese position. Several radical Republicans, including Giuseppe Garibaldi, become more sympathetic to the National Society, because its policy looks more realistically designed to achieve Italian unity.
Cavour uses the occasion to warn the Emperor of the dangers of a revolutionary movement in Italy and to induce him to speed up the implementation of the Franco-Piedmontese military alliance.
This is the occasion patiently expected by Cavour to provoke the second war of independence was the first.
Six days later the Austrians under the command of General Gyulai begin the invasion of Piedmont. Their slow advance allows the French to deploy reinforcements for the Piedmontese army. French troops cross the Ticino river and enter Lombardy. June 4 Austrians defeated at Magenta. June 8 Napoleon III, worried by the mounting costs of war and the growing unpopularity of the war in France, concludes an armistice with Austria without consulting Piedmont.
Austria retains the Veneto and the princes of Tuscany, Parma, Modena, Massa-Carrara etc, protected by Austria, are to be restored to their thrones.
Cavour, feeling betrayed, resigns as Prime Minister of Piedmont. Constitutional assemblies in Parma, Modena and Tuscany and the small duchies in the Romagna meet, depose the princes and proclaim their annexion to Piedmont. Victor Emanuel II hesitates, afraid of provoking a French reaction. Cavour noted that Napoleon began by stating that he was determined to support [Piedmont-Sardinia] with all his strength in a war against Austria, on the condition that the war was not in support of a revolutionary cause  and could be justified in diplomatic terms and, more importantly, before public opinion in France and in Europe.
There were Austrian troops not only in Bologna but also in Rome preserving the status quo, but in Rome there were also French troops for broadly similar reasons, and parallels between the garrisoning of Bologna and of Rome were uncomfortably close.
The little Duchy of Modena and Reggio presented a more promising " casus belli ".
Francis had conspicuously failed to acknowledge Napoleon III as emperor of France following the latter's successful power grab at the start of the decade. Francis of Modena had inadvertently set himself up as eminently dispensable in the eyes of Napoleon.
Life and Reign of Napoleon III - dansunah.info
The co-operation of the Modenese citizenry in such a scheme seems never to have been in doubt. The King of Piedmont-Sardinia would respond by graciously declining the appeal in the terms in which it was put, but he would nevertheless send a menacing communication to Francis V of Modena.
The communication would be seen as interference in the Austrian sphere of influence and would provoke outrage in Vienna: Austria's response would be correspondingly provocative. Piedmont-Sardinia would then find itself obliged to occupy militarily Massaa coastal city and an important port belonging to the Duchy of Modenaby which time a wider war with Austria would have been triggered. The Chief Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia agreed.
He would be replaced, at least on a provisional basis, by the originally francophone Duchess of Parma Louise Marie of Artois. Rome and its immediate surrounds would continue to be ruled by the pope.
Further south, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies should remain under the control of its existing king. Were Ferdinand to be removed from the scene the emperor would be very happy for his successor to be Prince Lucien Murat who was one of the emperor's relations. These four Italian states would have formed a confederation, modeled on the German Confederationof which the honorary presidency would be given to the pope.
I replied that Your Majesty supported the principal of nationalism, which included recognition that Savoyby virtue of being French speaking, should be united with France Regarding Nizza Nice the situation was different, since the inhabitants of Nice had far more in common with the Piedmontese than with the French, and their incorporation into France would accordingly be entirely contrary to those very principals of nationalism underpinning the military triumph anticipated against Austria.
The political future of Nice could be settled on another occasion. He moved on to how the alliances might line up in a future war. British neutrality could be secured with the help of Piedmontese diplomacy. Prussia would abstain despite an adversarial perspective in respect of Austria: