English Channel Map, English Channel Location Facts, Major Bodies of Water, England - World Atlas
The principles of the ecosystem approach are not met in the English Channel. Abstract. The English Channel is one of the world's busiest sea areas with .. is considered only as a part of Region II, the Greater North Sea. Alternative Titles: British Sea, La Manche, Oceanus Britannicus, The Channel . There is an overall water flow through the English Channel to the North Sea. The English Channel also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates .. and the project was abandoned. The naval blockade in the Channel and North Sea was one of the decisive factors in the German defeat in
Crustaceans are also commonly found throughout the sea. Norway lobster, deep-water prawns, and brown shrimp are all commercially fished, but other species of lobstershrimpoystermussels and clams are all found. Recently non-indigenous species have become established including the Pacific oyster and Atlantic jackknife clam. These locations provide breeding habitat for dozens of bird species.
Tens of millions of birds make use of the North Sea for breeding, feeding, or migratory stopovers every year. Populations of Northern fulmars, Black-legged Kittiwakes, Atlantic puffins, razorbills, and species of petrels, gannets, seaducks, loons diverscormorants, gullsauksand terns, and many other seabirds make these coasts popular for birdwatching.
Marine mammals A female bottlenose dolphin with her young in Moray Firth, Scotland.
The North Sea is also home to marine mammals. Common seals, grey seals can be found along the coasts, at marine installations, and on islands. The very northern North Sea islands like the Shetlands are occasionally home to a larger variety of pinnipeds including bearded, harp, hooded and ringed seals, and even walrus. North Sea cetaceans include Harbour porpoises, common dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, Risso's dolphins, long-finned pilot whales and white-beaked dolphins, minke whales, killer whales, and sperm whales.
Flora Plant species in the North Sea include species of wrack, among them bladder wrack, knotted wrack, and serrated wrack. Algaeincluding kelpsuch as oarweed and laminaria hyperboria, and species of maerl are found as well. Eelgrass, formerly common in the entirety of the Wadden Sea, was nearly wiped out in the twentieth century by a disease and has struggle to reestablish itself. Similarly, sea moss used to coat huge tracts of ocean floor, but have been damaged by trawling and dredging have diminished its habitat and prevented its return.
Invasive Japanese seaweed has spread along the shores of the sea clogging harbors and inlets and has become a nuisance. Resembling water-marked taffeta, the fast-moving water is streaked white, pale blue, turquoise, and royal blue; colored by the characteristic white chalk that forms the soil of the region.
The white, chalky soil reflects light, giving the water its pale color near shore. The chalk is also evident along the shoreline, where tall, white cliffs rise on both the English and French side of the channel. On the British side, these geological formations are the famous White Cliffs of Dover.
Global warming has been attributed to a rise in the average temperature of the North Sea. The salinity has the highest variability where there is fresh water inflow, such as at the Rhine and Elbe estuariesthe Baltic Sea exit and along the coast of Norway. Around million people live in the catchment area of the rivers that flow into the North Sea.
This area contains one of the world's greatest concentrations of industry. The North Sea is a part of the Atlantic Oceanreceiving the majority of its content from the northwest opening, and a lesser portion from the smaller opening at the English Channel.
International waters in the Channel
These tidal currents leave along the Norwegian coast. Surface and deep water currents may move in different directions. Low salinity surface coastal waters move offshore, and deeper, denser high salinity waters move in shore. Water from the Gulf Stream flows in both through the English Channel towards Norwayand around the north of Britain, moving south along the British coast. From the south-moving current smaller currents are pulled off eastwards into the central North Sea.
Another significant current sweeps south in the eastern part of the Sea. This is cold North Atlantic water and is strongest in late spring and early summer when the British offshore waters remain cool while the sea off the Netherlands and Germany starts warming up. Water from the Channel, and water flowing out of the Baltic Sea eventually move north along the Norwegian coast back into the Atlantic in what is called the Norwegian Current.
Tides There are three factors which influence tidal waves in sea basins which possess weak wave systems; the sea oscillation period, the ocean tide range approaching the North Sea and the entrance dimensions between the ocean and the North Sea. Some of the energy from this wave travels through the English Channel into the North Sea.
The wave still travels northward in the Atlantic Ocean, and once past the British Isles, the Kelvin wave turns east and south and once again enters into the North Sea. The North Sea located on the continental shelf has different waves than those in deep ocean water. The wave speeds are diminished and the wave amplitudes are increased. In the North Sea there are two amphidromic systems and a third incomplete amphidromic system. At an amphidromic point the rise and fall of tidal waves is zero due to canceling of tidal waves, and the semidiurnal high and low tides rotate around these points twice in a tidal day.
As a result, the tidal range in southern Norway is less than half a meter 1. The tidal range is at its greatest at The Wash on the English coast, where it reaches 6.
The coastlines along the southernmost part are soft, covered with the remains of deposited glacial sediment, which was left directly by the ice or has been redeposited by the sea. The Norwegian mountains plunge into the sea, giving birth, north of Stavanger, to deep fjords and archipelagos.
South of Stavanger, the coast softens, the islands become fewer.
North Sea - Map & Details
The eastern Scottish coast is similar, though less severe than Norway. Starting from Flamborough Head in the north east of Englandthe cliffs become lower and are composed of less resistant moraine, which erodes more easily, so that the coasts have more rounded contours. The east coast and southeast of the North Sea Wadden Sea have coastlines that are mainly sandy and straight owing to longshore currents, particularly along Belgium and Denmark.
Northern fjords, skerries, and cliffs The northern North Sea coasts bear the impression of the enormous glaciers which covered them during the Ice Ages and created a split, craggy coastal landscape. Fjords arose by the action of glaciers, which dragged their way through them from the highlands, cutting and scraping deep trenches in the land. During the subsequent rise in sea level, they filled with water.
They very often display steep coastlines and are extremely deep for the North Sea. Fjords are particularly common on the coast of Norway.
North Sea - New World Encyclopedia
Firths are similar to fjords, but are generally shallower with broader bays in which small islands may be found. The glaciers that formed them influenced the land over a wider area and scraped away larger areas. Firths are to be found mostly on the Scottish and northern English coasts. The horizontal impact of waves on the North Sea coast gives rise to eroded coasts. The eroded material is an important source of sediment for the mudflats on the other side of the North Sea.
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The cliff landscape is interrupted in southern England by large estuaries with their corresponding mud and marshy flats, notably the Humber and the Thames. There are skerries in southern Norway and on the Swedish Skagerrak coast. Formed by similar action to that which created the fjords and firths, the glaciers in these places affected the land to an even greater extent, so that large areas were scraped away.
The coastal brim Strandflatenwhich is found especially in southern Norway, is a gently sloping lowland area between the sea and the mountains. It consists of plates of bedrock, and often extends for kilometers, reaching under the sea, at a depth of only a few meters. Southern shoals and mudflats The shallow-water coasts of the southern and eastern coast up to Denmark were formed by ice age activity, but their particular shape is determined for the most part by the sea and sediment deposits.
This landscape is heavily influenced by the tides and important sections of it have been declared a National Park. The whole of the coastal zone is shallow; the tides flood large areas and uncover them again, constantly depositing sediments. The Southern Bight has been especially changed by land reclamation, as the Dutch have been especially active.
It is deepest there, with a depth of metres. The most shallow part of it is a sand bank called Dogger Bank.
In the southern part, there are many sand banks. Looking at the satellite picture it is easy to see the geographic divisions of the North Sea: The southern north sea is composed of the Southern Bightbefore the coast of Belgium and the Netherlands and the German Bight before the coastline of Germany.
The Dogger Bank is the limit between the southern and central parts. The Dogger Bank covers an area about half the size of the Netherlands. There, the North Sea has a depth of between 13 and 20 metres only. The area is very famous for fishing. With some storms there are even waves breaking there.
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The Norwegian Trench has an average depth of around to metres; at the entrance to the Skagerrak, the depth increases up to meters. Also, most of the waters of the Baltic Sea flow northwards here. However, local water currents on 'Springs' are more changeable and run faster - and making landfall is much more difficult - so such Swims require more planning by the Pilot and the Swimmer. The traditional start time from France was about 3 to 4 hours before high water, although this also varied considerably depending on the tide, weather, Swimmer and Pilot.
A Chart of the Dover Strait. The English Channel is one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world, with approximately vessels movements every day Because of this, International Shipping Lanes have been agreed and their areas marked on the charts.
Crossing from Dover there is the English Inshore Traffic Zone which is about 5 nautical miles wide, followed by the 'South West Lane' which is approximately 4 nautical miles wide. In the middle is an area known as the Separation Zone which is one nautical mile wide. They broadcast navigational bulletins every half hour and log vessels using the lanes to co-ordinate ship movements and to monitor safety.