Henry IV, Part 1 - Wikipedia
The relationship between Hal and Falstaff is a very complex one. At the Prince's first speech, Falstaff has only asked the time and Hal is It takes a long time to gain the “sensei's” trust and achieve his high expectations (“martial art. Edward "Ned" Poins, generally referred to as "Poins", is a fictional character who appears in two plays by Shakespeare, Henry IV, Part 1 and Henry IV, Part 2. He is also mentioned in The Merry Wives of Windsor. Poins is Prince Hal's closest friend during his wild youth. Hal gets a letter from Falstaff, in which Falstaff tells him not to trust Poins. It takes a long time to gain the “sensei's” trust and achieve his high expectations ( “martial art. Second, Hal needs King Henry's approvable of becoming prince but he must Finally, Hal makes a good decision when ignoring Falstaff which will allow him to Hamlet Essay, Loyalty Between Father and Son Relationships.
In this respect Poins is an ambiguous figure, who is both part of the criminal underworld and also of the superior social world that looks down on it and undermines it.
He is "of uncertain social standing", but his comment that his only problem is that he is a "second brother" implies that he is "a gentleman with no inheritance, his gentility making him an appropriate companion for Hal".
The fact that Poins disappears from the narrative after the end of Henry IV, Part 2 suggests that his identity cannot be incorporated into the continuing story; he is neither a "low life" character, nor a participant in the high politics of the new regime. He is effectively a "shadow" side of Hal himself. Throughout both plays the tension between Poins and Falstaff beneath the apparent bonhomie represents their competition for Hal's favour and each one's willingness to undermine the other.
According to Giorgio Melchiori, "the mention of Poins is meant to place Fenton in a separate category from Falstaff and the other companions of the Prince",  since Poins is the Prince's confidant, and implicitly a member of the gentility, albeit a wayward one.
Henry IV, Part 2 - Wikipedia
This implies that Fenton has had a bit of a wild youth, but is not directly tainted with criminality. Some passages appear to be derived directly from the earlier play, such as the conversation in which Poins says Hal would be thought a hypocrite if he mourned for his estranged father, which derives from a scene in Famous Victories in which Ned says that mourning would "make folks believe the death of your father grieves you, and tis nothing so".
French argued that "it is probable that Shakespeare intended him for a cadet of the family of Poyntz, one of high antiquity in Gloucestershire". Sir Nicholas Poins was depicted by Holbein. In the earliest version of Henry IV, Part 1 all of Falstaff's cronies had names derived from established families of the era, but most were later changed.
Melchiori considers it significant that Poins was the only one whose name was not changed. According to Leonard Diggeswriting shortly after Shakespeare's death, many plays could not get good audiences, "but let Falstaff come, Hal, Poins and the rest, you scarce shall have a room"."I do, I will" Prince Hal as Henry IV
His love for Nell Poins led him to spare Poins the fate of the other former companions, but he was removed from the king's company by being given an administrative position in the north of England. Poins is depicted as a slavish follower of Hal: This was a young gentleman of good family, but bad morals; that is to say, for the present. He was one of those loyal natures who, in all ages, are to be found attaching themselves instinctively to some great man, taking their tone and colour in all things from the illustrious model.
Poins cut his hair and his conscience in exact imitation of the Prince of Wales. The existing court fashions, as established by the Prince, were long hanging sleeves, pointed shoes, late hours, intoxication, and roystering.
Poins followed them all with scrupulous fidelity; but was quite ready to change them for sad-coloured doublets, square toes, early rising, temperance, and respectability, at a moment's notice. The now "Sir Edward Poins" writes a dismissive letter to Falstaff informing him that he will only be allowed in the royal palace when it is open to the public for viewing tapestries. The play ends at Shrewsbury, after the battle. The death of Hotspur has taken the heart out of the rebels,  and the king's forces prevail.
Henry is pleased with the outcome, not least because it gives him a chance to execute Thomas Percy, the Earl of Worcester, one of his chief enemies though previously one of his greatest friends. Meanwhile, Hal shows off his kingly mercy in praise of valour; having taken the valiant Douglas prisoner, Hal orders his enemy released without ransom. This unsettled ending sets the stage for Henry IV, Part 2.
Date and text[ edit ] 1 Henry IV was almost certainly in performance bygiven the wealth of allusions and references to the Falstaff character. The play was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on 25 Feb.
Ned Poins - Wikipedia
The play was Shakespeare's most popular printed text: The Dering Manuscript[ edit ] Main article: The consensus of Shakespeare scholars is that the Dering MS. A few dissenters have argued that the Dering MS. Indeed, throughout most of the play's performance history, Hal was staged as a secondary figure, and the stars of the stage, beginning with James Quin and David Garrick often preferred to play Hotspur. It was only in the twentieth century that readers and performers began to see the central interest as the coming-of-age story of Hal, who is now seen as the starring role.
In the "coming-of-age" interpretation, Hal's acquaintance with Falstaff and the tavern lowlife humanises him and provides him with a more complete view of life. Many readers interpret the history as a tale of Prince Hal growing up, evolving into King Henry V perhaps the most heroic of all of Shakespeare's characters, in what is a tale of the prodigal son adapted to the politics of medieval England.
Oldcastle controversy[ edit ] The title page from the first quarto edition of the play, printed in Henry IV, Part 1 caused controversy on its first performances inbecause the comic character now known as " Falstaff " was originally named "Oldcastle" and was based on John Oldcastlea famous proto-Protestant martyr with powerful living descendants in England.
Although the character is called Falstaff in all surviving texts of the play, there is abundant external and internal evidence that he was originally called Oldcastle. It is also indicated in details in the early texts of Shakespeare's plays.
Finally, there is the blatant disclaimer at the close of Henry IV, Part 2 that discriminates between the two figures: In Act III sc. The plan highlights his destructive and argumentative nature.
These were the Lords Cobham: The elder Lord Cobham even had a strong negative impact upon the lives of Shakespeare and his contemporaries in the theatre. When Carey died on 22 Julythe post of Lord Chamberlain was given to William Brooke, Lord Cobham, who definitely was not a friend to the players, and who withdrew what official protection they had enjoyed.
The players were left to the mercies of the local officials of the City of Londonwho had long wanted to drive the companies of actors out of the City.
Thomas Nashein a contemporary letter, complained that the actors were "piteously persecuted by the Lord Mayor and the aldermen" during this period. This interval did not last; when Cobham died less than a year later, the post of Lord Chamberlain went to Henry Carey's son George, 2nd baron Hunsdon, and the actors regained their previous patronage. Fastolf had died without descendants, making him safe for a playwright's use.
Shortly afterward, a team of playwrights wrote a two-part play entitled Sir John Oldcastlewhich presents a heroic dramatisation of Oldcastle's life and was published in Inthe Oxford Shakespeare edition of Shakespeare's works rendered the character's name as Oldcastle, rather than Falstaff, in Henry IV, Part 1 although not, confusingly, in Part 2as a consequence of the editors' aim to present the plays as they would have appeared during their original performances.
No other published editions have followed suit. Adaptations[ edit ] A photograph of John Jack as Falstaff in a late 19th century performance of the play.