Quiz & Worksheet - Friendship in Julius Caesar | dansunah.info
and find homework help for other Julius Caesar questions at eNotes. How does Portia and Brutus' relationship differ from that of Calpurnia and Caesar? What is the basic difference between the two funeral orations of Brutus and Mark Antony? Julius Caesar Quotes · Julius Caesar Quiz · Julius Caesar Lesson Plans. Julius Caesar study guide contains a biography of William Shakespeare, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, hot coals from the fire after Mark Antony and Octavius assume power in Rome. . Introduction to Julius Caesar · Relationship to Other Books · Bringing in. Everything you ever wanted to know about Brutus in Julius Caesar, written by is to apologize to his pal for being so moody and neglectful of their relationship.
According to the Greek historian Plutarchas Caesar arrived at the Senate, Lucius Tillius Cimber presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother. Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenseless on the lower steps of the portico. According to Roman historian Eutropiusaround 60 or more men participated in the assassination.
Caesar was stabbed 23 times and died from the blood loss attributable to multiple stab wounds. When this did not occur, he soon returned to Rome. The conspirators, who styled themselves the Liberatores "The Liberators"had barricaded themselves on the Capitoline Hill for their own safety.
Though they believed Caesar's death would restore the Republic, Caesar had been immensely popular with the Roman middle and lower classeswho became enraged upon learning a small group of aristocrats had killed their champion.
Antony, as the sole Consul, soon took the initiative and seized the state treasury. CalpurniaCaesar's widow, presented him with Caesar's personal papers and custody of his extensive property, clearly marking him as Caesar's heir and leader of the Caesarian faction.
Lepidus wanted to storm the Capitol, but Antony preferred a peaceful solution as a majority of both the Liberators and Caesar's own supporters preferred a settlement over civil war. Caesar's assassins would be pardoned of their crimes and, in return, all of Caesar's actions would be ratified.
Antony also agreed to accept the appointment of his rival Dolabella as his Consular colleague to replace Caesar. This compromise was a great success for Antony, who managed to simultaneously appease Caesar's veterans, reconcile the Senate majority, and appear to the Liberatores as their partner and protector.
Antony would struggle with Octavian for leadership of the Caesarian party following Caesar's assassination. On 19 March, Caesar's will was opened and read. In it, Caesar posthumously adopted his great-nephew Gaius Octavius and named him his principal heir. Then only 19 years old and stationed with Caesar's army in Macedonia, the youth became a member of Caesar's Julian clanchanging his name to "Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus" Octavian in accordance with the conventions of Roman adoption. Though not the chief beneficiary, Antony did receive some bequests.
Caesar's funeral was held on 20 March.
Antony, as Caesar's faithful lieutenant and reigning Consul, was chosen to preside over the ceremony and to recite the elegy. During the demagogic speech, he enumerated the deeds of Caesar and, publicly reading his will, detailed the donations Caesar had left to the Roman people. Antony then seized the blood-stained toga from Caesar's body and presented it to the crowd. Worked into a fury by the bloody spectacle, the assembly rioted.
Several buildings in the Forum and some houses of the conspirators were burned to the ground. Panicked, many of the conspirators fled Italy. Such an assignment, in addition to being unworthy of their rank, would have kept them far from Rome and shifted the balance towards Antony.
Refusing such secondary duties, the two traveled to Greece instead. Additionally, Cleopatra left Rome to return to Egypt. Despite the provisions of Caesar's will, Antony proceeded to act as leader of the Caesarian faction, including appropriating for himself a portion of Caesar's fortune rightfully belonging to Octavian. Antony enacted the Lex Antoniawhich formally abolished the Dictatorship, in an attempt to consolidate his power by gaining the support of the Senatorial class.
He also enacted a number of laws he claimed to have found in Caesar's papers to ensure his popularity with Caesar's veterans, particularly by providing land grants to them. Lepidus, with Antony's support, was named Pontifex Maximus to succeed Caesar. Surrounding himself with a bodyguard of over six thousand of Caesar's veterans, Antony presented himself as Caesar's true successor, largely ignoring Octavian. Although Antony had amassed political support, Octavian still had opportunity to rival him as the leading member of the Caesarian faction.
The Senatorial Republicans increasingly viewed Antony as a new tyrant. Antony had lost the support of many Romans and supporters of Caesar when he opposed the motion to elevate Caesar to divine status.
By summer 44 BC, Antony was in a difficult position due to his actions regarding his compromise with the Liberatores following Caesar's assassination. He could either denounce the Liberatores as murderers and alienate the Senate or he could maintain his support for the compromise and risk betraying the legacy of Caesar, strengthening Octavian's position.
In either case, his situation as ruler of Rome would be weakened. Roman historian Cassius Dio later recorded that while Antony, as reigning Consul, maintained the advantage in the relationship, the general affection of the Roman people was shifting to Octavian due to his status as Caesar's son. Octavian continued to recruit Caesar's veterans to his side, away from Antony, with two of Antony's legions defecting in November 44 BC.
At that time, Octavian, only a private citizenlacked legal authority to command the Republic's armies, making his command illegal. With popular opinion in Rome turning against him and his Consular term nearing its end, Antony attempted to secure a favorable military assignment to secure an army to protect himself. The Senate, as was custom, assigned Antony and Dolabella the provinces of Macedonia and Syriarespectively, to govern in 43 BC after their Consular terms expired.
Antony, however, objected to the assignment, preferring to govern Cisalpine Gaul which had been assigned to Decimus Junius Brutus Albinusone of Caesar's assassins. Both consuls were killed, however, leaving Octavian in sole command of their armies, some eight legions.
Second Triumvirate Forming the Alliance[ edit ] With Antony defeated, the Senate, hoping to eliminate Octavian and the remainder of the Caesarian party, assigned command of the Republic's legions to Decimus.
Although there are slight discrepancies between the two, the plot line that Plutarch follows remains intact in Shakespeare's drama. In many cases, Shakespeare changes the language of the narration but retains the essence of the story.
And leave us Publius; lest that the people, Rushing on us, should do your age some mischief.
Do so; and let no man abide this deed But we the doers. The same can be seen in Shakespeare's transition of the battle scene where Brutus is plotting his suicide. Thereupon he proved Dardanus, and said somewhat also to him. At length he came to Volumnius himself, andspeaking to him in Greek, prayed him Sit thee down, Clitus; slaying is the word, It is a deed in fashion.
What, I, my lord? No, not for all the world. Peace then, no words.
Quiz & Worksheet - Descendants of Julius Caesar | dansunah.info
I'll rather kill myself. Shall I do such a deed? Similarly, when Caesar is speaking to his wife about the nature of the omens she has observed, Shakespeare transmutes Plutarch's narration into Caesar's words. Cowards die many times before their deaths; The valiant never taste of death but once, Of all the wonders that I yet have heard, It seems to me most strange that men should fear; Seeing that death, a necessary end, Will come when it will come.
The proof of Shakespeare's use of Plutarch as a direct source, however, lies deeper than this. In many instances, Shakespeare quite literally takes the words out of Plutarch's mouth. In what modern society could consider plagiarism, Shakespeare often uses, word for word, a line or phrase from Plutarch.
One example of this is apparent in Act V, when Brutus' army is preparing for battle. Now, most noble Brutus, The gods to-day stand friendly, that we may, Lovers in peace, lead on our days to age!
But since the affairs of men rest still incertain Let's reason with the worst that may befall. If we do lose this battle, then is this The very last time we shall speak together: What are you then determined to do?
Shakespeare takes the words directly from Plutarch's narrative and incorporates them into his play. This pattern is also seen in his treatment of Caesar, " And he shall wear his crown by sea and land I. Caesar self also, doing sacrifice unto the gods, found that one of the beasts which was sacrificed had no heart; and that was a strange thing in nature — how a beast could live without a heart.
But never till to-night, never till now, Did I go through a tempest dropping fire And yesterday the bird of night did sit even at noon-day upon the market-place, Hooting and shrieking. They would not have you to stir forth today. Plucking the entrails of an offering forth, They could not find a heart within the beast.
He is equally as open about using Plutarch when he has Antony divulge Caesar's will to the people. Although it is clear that Shakespeare used Plutarch's work extensively, it is not to say that Julius Caesar is without any originality. Shakespeare deviates from Plutarch on many occasions for a variety of different reasons.
From History to the Stage
One issue that Shakespeare dealt with in reworking Plutarch's history was the difficulty of transforming a narrative work into a staged drama. Many people today read Shakespeare's plays and see them through a literary light, but they were originally designed, of course, for the theater.
One task Shakespeare had in order to make Plutarch's story "performable" was to change the structure of time in the history. This period of three years is unworkable for the Elizabethan stage, so Shakespeare was forced to condense the work into what turns out to be five very eventful days.
The first day Act I. The play condenses these events into one day — the Ides of March — which historically Plutarch spreads into a much larger span of time. These are Shakespeare's third and fourth days.
Shakespeare's fifth day, which includes all of Act V, relates the final battle of the play, which Plutarch places much later, in October 42 BC. Although these changes make this portion of Roman history seem much more abrupt than it truly was, they are necessary considering the nature of staged drama during this era.
In his preparation of the work, however, Shakespeare did more than simply modify the duration of Plutarch's time. In some cases, he altered its sequence. Taking quotes directly from Plutarch's history, Shakespeare occasionally separated the actions in one event and put them into the dialogue of several different acts.
An example of this occurs in Plutarch's narration of Caesar's murder. Here wast thou bay'd, brave hart; Here didst thou fall; and here thy hunters stand, III.
Never, till Caesar's three and thirty wounds Be well avenged. In addition to using this technique to capture the audience's attention, Shakespeare uses suspense to keep their focus on the stage. Plutarch, however, was not a master of suspense. His narration of Caesar's story is concise and to the point, leaving little room for plot speculation. For Shakespeare's dramatic purposes this was unacceptable, and some of the changes he makes from Plutarch are designed to invigorate the tale with uncertainty.
The effects of this are present in Shakespeare's adaptation of the moments before Caesar's assassination. As the conspirators prepare to finally undertake the action they had been plotting, Popilius Lena approaches them and warns that their plan is not entirely secret. But withal, dispatch I read you, for your enterprise is bewrayed.
Marcus Junius Brutus
Popilius Lena clearly favors the assassination and informs Cassius and Brutus that the cat was out of the bag. Although Shakespeare certainly derives his scene from Plutarch, he treats the incident somewhat differently. I wish your enterprise today may thrive. What said Popilius Lena? Trebonius The first of the conspirators to second Brutus' argument that Antony be spared, Trebonius lures Antony out of the Senate House so that the other conspirators can kill Caesar without having to fear Antony's intervention.
Consequently, he is the only conspirator who does not actually stab Caesar. Portia The wife of Brutus and the daughter of Marcus Cato. She argues that those familial relationships make her strong enough to conceal Brutus' secrets, but on the morning of the assassination, she is extremely agitated by the fear that she will reveal what Brutus has told her. She commits suicide when she realizes that her husband's fortunes are doomed.
Caius Ligarius No friend of Caesar's, he is inspired by Brutus' nobility to cast off his illness and join the conspirators in the early morning of the ides of March.
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Publius An elderly senator who arrives with the conspirators to escort Caesar to the Capitol. He is stunned as he witnesses the assassination. Brutus sends him out to tell the citizens that no one else will be harmed.Rome(2)---Best Conversation Ever
Artemidorus He gives Caesar a letter as the emperor enters the Capitol; in the letter, he lists the conspirators by name and indicates that they intend to kill him, but Caesar does not read it.
This comment intensifies the dramatic tension in the moments immediately prior to the assassination by causing Cassius and Brutus to briefly fear that they have been betrayed. Cinna the poet On his way to attend Caesar's funeral, he is caught up in the riot caused by Antony's funeral oration.
The mob at first confuses him with Cinna the conspirator, but even after they discover their error, they kill him anyway "for his bad verses.
He and Antony lead the army that defeats Cassius and Brutus at Philippi. He is weak, and Antony uses him essentially to run errands. Lucilius The officer who impersonates Brutus at the second battle of Philippi and is captured by Antony's soldiers. Antony admires his loyalty to Brutus and thus he protects him, hoping that Lucilius will choose to serve him as loyally as he did Brutus. Pindarus At Philippi, he erroneously tells his master, Cassius, that the scout Titinius has been captured by the enemy when the scout has actually been greeted by the victorious forces of Brutus.
Thinking that all is lost, Cassius decides to die; he has Pindarus kill him with the same sword that he used to help slay Caesar.