Sex buyers use sexually trafficked and other women in prostitution for the same Leidholdt, 'Prostitution and Trafficking in Women: An Intimate Relationship,' in. Most of the theoretical frameworks regarding violence against women are derived to intimate partner violence, framing an abusive relationship between intimate prostitution, and sex trafficking are abuses of sex and a form of power taken. [Haworth co-indexing entry note]: “Prostitution and Trafficking of Women and Children from Mexico to .. themselves in an abusive intimate partner relationship.
One study of survivos of adult sexual assault showed that In conjunction with sexual abuse and assault, other forms of nonsexual trauma, such as physical and emotional abuse, are also important risk factors to consider. Childhood emotional abuse is also significantly associated with commercial sexual exploitation and may contribute to a younger age of entry into prostitution Roe-Sepowitz, One study examining health outcomes among domestic, sexually trafficked victims found that most victims had experienced physical violence The additional control and coercion of sexual exploitation by a pimp also promulgates additional exposure to threatened or actualized assault or other forms of trauma.
Two multicountry studies examined issues of depression and PTSD among sex trafficking victims and found significant associations between these mental health issues and trafficking. Although this well-known study was not conducted in the United States, it is frequently referenced in domestic literature and must be addressed accordingly.
On a smaller scale, several domestic studies have found similar associations and prevalence rates of PTSD among sexually exploited women.
Given the extreme trauma that victims of sexual exploitation face and the empirical link between trauma and PTSD as well as depression, high rates of mental health consequences unfortunately are expected in this population.
There are, however, different pathways in which sexually exploited women and girls become addicted to substances. Drugs are used as a form of control and intimidation; however, many women and girls have survived violence by using drugs de Chesnay, Some may enter prostitution as substance abusers, while others have been deliberately addicted by their pimps or are forced or coerced into exchanging money for drugs.
Some evidence suggests that patterns of drug use in conjunction with sexual exploitation may be further impacted by the age at which the individual is first exploited or begins to trade sex. Young women who trade sex are especially vulnerable to higher rates of drug use Miller et al. A study conducted in Minneapolis of prostituted women found that adult women who began trading sex as adults were more likely to abuse substances before trading sex for money, whereas adult women who began trading sex for money as minors were more likely to abuse substances after they began trading sex Martin et al.
Women in criminal justice systems are more likely to experience both substance abuse and child sexual trauma. These studies and many more point to varied complexity of health, mental health, and judicial consequences for sexually exploited women.
Housing Instability Several studies among runaway, throwaway, and homeless youth have shown an association between housing instability and sexual exploitation. In a study of homeless youth, females were more than four times more likely to engage in survival sex with a friend Tyler et al.
Housing instability remains a critical risk factor to or consequence of sexual exploitation to consider with this population of female youth. Evidence also exists of empirical associations between homeless, adult women and sexual exploitation as well as prostitution. Complexity of Interactions Between Risk Factors and Vulnerabilities Individual risk factors and vulnerabilities are additionally compounded by various studies showing that mental health, substance abuse, and housing instability issues may all precede sexual exploitation or become comorbid conditions of the exploitation.
For example, many studies address the association between childhood trauma and sexual exploitation Clawson et al. This area of research should be further developed in the exploration of any emerging patterns among sexually trafficked women and the relationship between the various microlevel risk factors and consequences. Although some victims do not know their exploiter before being kidnapped into sexual exploitation or trafficking, women and girls are often exploited by someone they love, usually a family member or intimate partner.
Other they are exploited while they are the responsibility of the foster care system. This section will review the context and systems impacting the pathway into sexual exploitation for many women and girls. Dysfunctional Family Dynamics Dysfunctional family dynamics add extensive risk factors to victims in a number of different ways. A study exploring women who were exploited when they were children found associations between factors in the home such as familial IPV and drug use, as well as lack of supervision, food, medical care, and love Reid, These family dynamics may impact her options over the course of the exploitation as well as her ability to access outside support.
Second, pimps, traffickers, or exploiters are often family members or family friends themselves Jordan et al. This is consistent with U. Exploited women and girls may be forced, coerced, or pressured into commercial sex industry to support themselves or their family members Farley, In these cases, family members may restrict her movement from the home or control her contact with individuals outside the family Reid, Involvement in the foster care system may stem from child abuse and neglect Miller et al.
Despite efforts to intervene at a younger age, adults aging out of a foster care that have a history of sexual abuse continue to be more likely to have transactional sex Ahrens et al. Intimate Partner Violence IPV Evidence has emerged indicating that women and girls are often sexually exploited by someone they consider to be a romantic or intimate partner. In the National Opinion Research Center conducted a study of congressional mandates issued to identify victims of domestic trafficking through law enforcement and explore the differences between sex trafficking and unlawful commercial sex.
Qualitatively many law enforcement respondents reported that the generally older boyfriends of teens and young adults would eventually become their pimp Newton et al.Sex worker - the truth behind the smile - Antoinette Welch - TEDxAntioch
This is evident from the stages of exploitation some victims endure, which often mirror IPV. For many victims of sexual exploitation, the process is identical. It is impossible to provide a comprehensive analysis of sexual exploitation without addressing the societal structures and social factors that allow sexual exploitation to exist and that contribute to the effects of exploitation on the individual level.
Much of the current literature exploring the macroeconomic cost of sex trafficking frames exploitation as an issue rooted in national development and global power differentials between countries Koettl, ; Schauer, There is a dearth of figures relating to profits gained and economic costs of sex trafficking in the United States beyond foreign-born and immigration-related proceedings. National and state reports on economic cost often focus on the cost of trafficking visas, asylum hearings, and other legal ramifications available for foreign-born women and girls who have been trafficked into this country.
However, some estimates have been calculated as to the unknown or unreported revenue of sex trafficking. Unfortunately, no estimate is available as to how many illegal brothels exist specifically in the United States. In a specific instance in Oakland California, a large prostitution ring identified minors who were actively prostituted by pimps in Only a small percentage of this income is usually reported to the government. To date, other related legal costs of criminal and civil proceedings have not been estimated.
Hospital- and health-care—related costs are another important societal cost of sex trafficking. Sexual exploitation and sex trafficking result in many physical injuries such as fractures, gastrointestinal disorders, infections, dental problems, malnutrition, pregnancy, and many gynecological complications and disorders de Chesnay,p.
This population also struggles with elevated rates of physical and sexual assaults Burnette et al. Although extant data do not focus specifically on health costs of sexually exploited women, health cost estimates are available for women with IPV who have also experienced similarly elevated rates of trauma and abuse. As identification of victims becomes clearer, financial estimates specifically regarding sexually exploited victims will be easier to calculate.
Like all forms of gender-based violence, sexual exploitation of women and girls would not exist without tacit and explicit structures that uphold male privilege and dominance. Despite legal and social progress made in this area, the institutionalized and cultural forms of violence against women have remained normative in U. Institutionalized Discrimination It would be impossible to examine the impact of sexism on sexual exploitation of women and girls without also considering the additional ramifications of racism, classism, and other forms of discrimination.
One study in Minnesota of Native American prostituted women revealed not only extensive rates of sexual and physical assault, but also that racism was an emotionally damaging source of ongoing stress in their experiences of prostitution, sexual assault, and mental and physical health needs Farley et al.
Related to institutionalized racism, discrimination based on poverty and social class is interconnected in a web of structural barriers. Women and girls are made vulnerable to sex trading and sexual exploitation because of a lack of other economic options Anderson et al.
Some believe they are obtaining a form of formal or informal employment i. People of color are also disproportionately affected by poverty, thus contributing to any existing vulnerabilities to sexual exploitation Clawson et al. Factors such as racism, sexism, and classism become structural barriers that continually oppress those who are politically, economically, or culturally disadvantaged, primarily women and girls who are oppressed by their race and class in addition to their sex Kurtz et al.
Demand for Sexual Exploitation There are three main, identified components to the demand for sexual exploitation: High levels of men who purchase sex have fueled a demand for women to supply it, which has subsequently led to exploiters forcing or coercing women into sexual exploitation. Traffickers and exploiters are easily able to take advantage of this economic opportunity coupled with the individual risk factors and systemic vulnerabilities.
Furthermore, the glamorization of pimping and prostitution has also contributed to the normalization and tolerance for this type of exploitation and violence against women. Moreover, many of these media images include women of color, adding increased normalization to the objectification of women, particularly nonwhite women.
Descriptions ranged from objective and descriptive information of women sold or sex acts provided e. The much debated terminology initiates a divided framework in understanding empirical evidence as it relates to prostitutes and prostituted women, sex workers and traders, and sexually trafficked and exploited women and girls.
Federal and state laws related to trafficking and prostitution also present additional complications in the understanding of sexual exploitation and the determination of crimes committed. Finally, the inability to provide accurate prevalence rates as well as controversies over extant data is well documented Clawson et al.
Association between childhood sexual abuse and transactional sex in youth aging out of foster care. Human trafficking is more than sex trafficking and prostitution: Implications for social work. An exploratory study of adolescent pimping relationships. Journal of Primary Prevention. Special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. Banks D, Kyckelhahn T. Characteristics of suspected human trafficking incidents, — Department of Justice Retrieved from http: The impact of homelessness on recent sex trade among pregnant women in drug treatment.
Journal of Substance Use. Prevalence and health correlates of prostitution among patients entering treatment for substance use disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry.
Human trafficking and domestic violence: Comparisons in research methodology needs and strategies. Adult sexual assault and prostitution: Early sexual abuse, street adversity, and drug use among female homeless and runaway adolescents in the Midwest.
Journal of Drug Issues. Age at entry into prostitution: Relationship to drug use, race, suicide, education level, childhood abuse, and family experiences. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment.
Human trafficking into and within the United States. An analysis of adolescent versus adult entry into street prostitution. A clinical guide for nurses. Springer; New York, NY: The commercial sexual exploitation of children in the U. Prostitution harms women even if legalized or decriminalized. Prostitution and trafficking in nine countries. Journal of Trauma Practice. The prostitution and trafficking of native women in Minnesota. Fong R, Berger Cardoso J.
Child human trafficking victims: Challenges for the child welfare system. Evaluation and Program Planning. Testing the cycle of violence hypothesis: Adolescents in both the model and particular study were more likely to come from abusive family backgrounds and rely on deviant survival strategies such as survival sex. As a result, they were more likely to face criminal justice consequences and experience increased victimization. Tyler and colleagues used this framework to interpret their study's observed association between survival sex and sexual victimization among homeless youth.
The prevalent associations were a result of the choice afforded to them because of low income and lack of other survival options. In addition to these individual studies, many descriptive studies of sexually exploited women and girls have showed high rates of substance abuse and addiction occurring before or as a result of sexual exploitation Burnette et al.
Differences in the addiction process and its influence on the pathway to sexual exploitation or sex work are documented descriptively but not explored theoretically; therefore, it is important to consider how they may relate to the process. However, the emerging theory of addiction has worked to combine several biological, neurological, and emotional aspects of these viewpoints. According to West and Brownaddiction should be understood as a chronic condition involving a repeated powerful motivation to engage in a rewarding behavior, acquired as a result of engaging in that behavior, that has significant potential for unintended harm.
The pathologies underlying addiction involve one of three types of abnormalities which either: In other words, the theory of addiction may derive as a response to a mental health factor, an internal motivation, or a social environment. While the theoretical component of addiction is not empirically tested in the sexual exploitation literature, use of substances and subsequent addiction is well documented, specifically among sexually exploited women Clawson et al.
Exit Perspectives Similar to the entry progression, the process by which women and girls exit sexual exploitation or sex work is equally complex and theoretically underdeveloped. One theory of exiting prostitution is proposed as empirically testable Cimino, Few theories exist that explain the exiting process and those that do exist are difficult to test quantitatively.
This article applies the integrative model of behavioral prediction to examine intentions to exit prostitution through attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy beliefs that underlie a woman's intention to exit prostitution.
Constructs unique to prostitution—agency and societal context—enhance the model. This theory may explain and predict an exit from street-level prostitution Cimino,yet no studies have done so to date. This process involves phases of disillusionment with the lifestyle of prostitution after violence, drug addiction, arrests, and trauma and then exiting as a result of negative events and attitude changes.
This model postulates that women are successful in staying away from prostitution with a change of social networks. Most recently, a predictive theory of intentions combined several theories to estimate the path to exiting Cimino, This proposed but untested theory assumes that all behavior is under a person's choice in light of four elements: The surrounding attitudes, norms, the woman's self-efficacy and intentions, skill, and environment also contribute to her choice.
This proposed theory targets voluntary exits only, and does not address any pimp or trafficker-related quandaries. Relation between Micro and Macro Level Theories All four studies addressing entry into trading or survival sex focus on victimization as a partial consequence of additional vulnerabilities, which seem to support the neo-abolitionist perspective at the macro level.
Authors point to the studies' reduced options because of various adversities and traumas, ranging from family backgrounds and abuse to poverty and homelessness. Theories of addiction also play a role in impacting the course of sexual exploitation and any choices a woman or girl may have. These studies do not necessarily dispute that individuals trading sex had the choice to do so, but rather suggest that they may not have made the same choices without increased vulnerabilities from childhood or in their present situations.
Like entry perspectives, both exit models seem to side with the abolitionist perspective in that they describe many reasons why a woman would not be able to be able to fully make a decision on her own, free of any other factors. Sex positivists would suggest that these theoretical explanations for prostitution remove the possibility of full personal agency and that a woman could make her own choice to do sex work. Conclusion It is evident that the majority of the research and debate is centered in the macro and structural theories of causation and remains substantially underdeveloped in micro level theories at the individual and relationship level.
The heated debates of various feminist perspectives have greatly influenced the divisions within the legal frameworks with which countries of the world are governed. Even with the extensive theoretical and legal writing at the macro level, the amount of empirically tested work remains limited. Micro level perspectives contribute to the understanding of entry and exit processes for women and girls in sexual exploitation or sex work, but contain very little outside empirical support.
Regardless of the contrasting body of works between macro and micro level theories, theoretical advancements play an important role in understanding sexual exploitation and sex work among females as well as the policies, services, and interventions available to them in present day. Towards a political economy of domestic violence. Prostitution and sexual autonomy: Making sense of the prohibition of prostitution.
The political economy of gendered violence. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society. Sex, work, and the feminist erasure of class. Journal of Women in Culture and Society. Strengthening domestic violence theories: Intersections of race, class, sexual orientation, and gender.
Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. Prevalence and health correlates of prostitution among patients entering treatment for substance use disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry. Does legalized prostitution increase human trafficking? Human trafficking and sex industry: Does ethnicity and race matter? Journal of Intercultural Studies. A predictive theory of intentions to exit street-level prostitution. Human trafficking into and within the United States. It's not only for the money: An analysis of adolescent versus adult entry into street prostitution.
Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. A case against the patriarchy. Edin K, Lein L. How single mothers survive welfare and low-wage work. Russell Sage Foundation; Correlates of partner violence among female street-based sex workers: Substance abuse, history of childhood abuse, and HIV risks.
Prostitution, Trafficking and Traumatic Stress - Melissa Farley - Google Книги
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The demand for victims of sex trafficking. Chicago Alliance Against Sex Trafficking; Jun, Retrieved from http: From sex as sin to sex as work: Is a feminist stance in support of prostitution possible? An exploration of current trends. An international comparative public health analysis of sex trafficking of women and girls in eight cities: Achieving a more effective health sector response. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine.
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Toward a feminist theory of the state. Harvard University Press; Breaking the Matthew effect—On women leaving prostitution. International Journal of Social Welfare.
Comparison of adult women who first traded sex as a juvenile versus as an adult. New directions in gender, diversity and organization theorizing —Re-imagining feminist post-colonialism, transnationalism and geographies of power.
International Journal of Management Reviews. Feminism and sex trafficking: Rethinking some aspects of autonomy and paternalism. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. Individual and structural vulnerability among female youth who exchange sex for survival.
The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. Stopping the traffic in women: Power, agency and abolition in feminist debates over sex-trafficking. Journal of Social Philosophy.
Meaning-making and domestic violence victim advocacy: An examination of feminist identities, ideologies, and practices. Outcome study of brief relational-cultural therapy in a women's mental health center.
Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research. The chronology of sexual and drug abuse milestones. Raphael J, Shapiro DL. The lives and needs of women in Chicago. Center for Impact Research. Exploratory review of route-specific, gendered, and age-graded dynamics of exploitation: Applying life course theory to victimization in sex trafficking in North America. Aggression and Violent Behavior.
Commercial sex and the rights of the person: A moral argument for the decriminalization of prostitution. University of Pennsylvania Law Reivew. Russell T, Garcia A. Becoming an ex-sex worker: Making transitions out of a deviant career.
A Heated Debate: Theoretical Perspectives of Sexual Exploitation and Sex Work
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The saga of Susannah: The relationship between victimization and substance use among homeless and runaway female adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.
Perceived health needs of inner-city street prostitutes: American Journal of Health Behavior. A snapshot of substance abuse among homeless and runaway youth in Denver, Colorado. Journal of Community Health. Twelve ways to do nothing about trafficking while pretending to.