Last week, during a visit to India, Nepalese Prime Minister K.P. Sharma that India does have too much power over the internal politics of Nepal. before the civil war ended, China dispatched ammunition for the first time to. In his first visit to India, Nepal's prime minister focused on the economy rather than thorny political issues. The Republic of India and the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal initiated their relationship Following the Sino-Indian border war, the relationship between Kathmandu Indian government, with the help of Nepalese opposition parties operating from India, managed to bring a change in Nepal's political system.
In the face of benign statements by his Indian hosts relating to the treaty, Adhikary sought greater economic independence for his landlocked nation while simultaneously striving to improve ties with China.
In Junea joint Kathmandu-New Delhi communique was issued pending the finalisation of a comprehensive arrangement covering all aspects of bilateral relations, restoring trade relations, reopening transit routes for Nepal's imports, and formalising respect of each other's security concerns. Kathmandu also announced that lower cost was the decisive factor in its purchasing arms and personnel carriers from China and that Nepal was advising China to withhold delivery of the last shipment.
However, even after the restoration of democracyinPrachandathe Prime Minister of Nepalvisited Indiain September only after visiting Chinabreaking the long-held tradition of Nepalese PM making India as their first port-of-call.
When in India, he spoke about a new dawn, in the bilateral relations, between the two countries. He said, "I am going back to Nepal as a satisfied person. I will tell Nepali citizens back home that a new era has dawned. Time has come to effect a revolutionary change in bilateral relations. On behalf of the new government, I assure you that we are committed to make a fresh start.
The citizenship bill passed by the Nepalese parliament in was the same bill that was rejected by Late King Birendra in  before he along with his entire family was massacred.
Indian government formally expressed sorrow at the death of Late King Birendra of Nepal. InIndo-Nepal ties got a further boost with an agreement to resume water talks after a 4-year hiatus.
The two issued a point statement highlighting the need to review, adjust and update the Treaty of Peace and Friendshipamongst other agreements.
In return, Nepal will take measures for the "promotion of investor friendly, enabling business environment to encourage Indian investments in Nepal. Furthermore, a three-tier mechanism at the level of ministerial, secretary and technical levels will be built to push forward discussions on the development of water resources between the two sides.
Indian External affairs minister Pranab Mukherjee promised the Nepali Prime Minister Prachanda that he would "extend all possible help for peace and development. Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi visited Nepal in Augustmarking the first official visit by an Indian prime minister in 17 years. During his visit, Indian government agreed to provide Nepal with USD 1 billion as concessional line of credit for various development purposes and a HIT formula, but he insisted that Indian immigrants in Nepal don't pose a threat to Nepal's sovereignty and therefore open border between Nepal and India should be a bridge and not a barrier.
The two-day-long International Buddhist conference in Kathmandu which ran from May 19—20, marked Vesak and the 2,th birthday of the Buddha was also used to promote the Buddha's birthplace which lies in modern-day Nepal. Oli told the media that the conference, "should help us make clear to the world that Buddha was born in Nepal and that Buddhist philosophy is the product of Nepal".
History of India-Nepal Relations
Indian troops had previously prevented Nepal from completing a culvert in the disputed area which ultimately led to protests. It was considered rare for India to retaliate with gunfire. Nepal claims that the river to the west of Kalapani is the main Kali river hence the area should belong to Nepal. The river borders the Nepalese zone of Mahakali and the Indian state of Uttarakhand. Subsequent maps drawn by British surveyors show the source of the boundary river at different places.
This discrepancy in locating the source of the river led to boundary disputes between India and Nepal, with each country producing maps supporting their own claims.
Indian government, however, from onward, forwarded the argument that border should be based on the ridge lines of the mountain Om Parvat.
The dispute intensified in as the Nepali parliament considered a treaty on hydro-electric development of the river. India and Nepal differ as to which stream constitutes the source of the river. Nepal has reportedly tabled an map from the British India Office to support its position.
According to the Nepalese government estimates, of the boundary pillars along the border, 1, pillars are missing, 2, require restoration, and, more need to be constructed. The JTLNIBC was set up in to demarcate the India-Nepal border and after years of surveying, deliberations and extensions, the Committee had delineated 98 per cent of the India-Nepal boundary, excluding Kalapani and Susta, on strip maps which was finally submitted in for ratification by both the countries.
History of India-Nepal Relations — South Asia Program at Hudson Institute
Unfortunately neither country ratified the maps. Prior to that, inNepal would sign another Peace and Friendship Treaty, with China this time around. Furthermore, inNepal would sign a border treaty and also agree to the building of a highway route that would connect with China.
This would however be cancelled by Nepal inalong with a call for Indian military personnel being removed from Nepal. Multiple Trade and Transit Treaties were signed between India and Nepal as trade ties strengthened between the two countries in the s and the s. The first being inand in Meanwhile, on the China front, Nepal would not see any significant developments in the s, or the early s, although strong relations would be maintained between China and Nepal throughout this time, as Nepal continued to balance its relations between India and China.
That massive strain would result in the restoration of the parliamentary democracy in Nepal in and after visits and meets in the early 90s between Indian and Nepalese leaders, trade ties would resume again with the signing of new treaties. The s would see the monarchy getting restored under King Gyanendra, only to be overthrown in and abolished inwhen Prime Minister Dahal also known as Prachanda started his first tenure as Prime Minister of Nepal.
Under King Gyanendra, China delivered arms to Nepal after India had stopped its weapons supply once the King seized power. India would normalize its relations with Nepal once again after the King Gyanendra was removed from power. Wary of these developments, China too has has made recent efforts to maintain a presence in Nepal, with investment in the Araniko Highway that connects Kathmandu with the Nepal-China border and facilitates easier trade and movement of goods between the two countries.
Hundreds of millions of dollars have also been pledged to Nepal by China for infrastructure and even military aid. However, India denied any role in the blockade, stating that internal tensions in Nepal were the cause behind the blockade. Prime Minister Dahal visited India this past week and along with Prime Minister Modi, signed agreements aimed at improving infrastructure and aiding the post-earthquake reconstruction efforts in Nepal.
Border security and hydropower were other topics that were discussed.