This essay looks at the connection between religion and social change in Max Weber looks into the possible relationship between the rise in Calvinism. Article shared by. Here is your essay on the relation between religion and social change. That economic order, political order and cultural order are three. Free Essay: The Relationship Between Religion and Social Change In this essay I will analyze and evaluate the relationship between religion and social.
Christianity wears many faces in Latin America and U.
Religion and Social Change
Pentecostal preachers in central plazas and black-robed priests in cavernous cathedrals, peasants leading "celebrations of the word," and teenagers singing rock-and-roll anthems to Christ. Amidst this diversity, certain common themes are evident. First, religion is changing but not disappearing. Greater religious pluralism has not led to secularization or religion's retreat from public life. If anything, religion has become more central to struggles around collective and individual identity and to the rearticulation of damaged civil societies.
As these pressures are felt in everyday life, people often turn to an increasingly diverse religious sphere. This book explores some of the complex links between religion and contemporary cultural, economic, and political changes in the Americas. On the basis of these data, she draws several conclusions. Within this new landscape, Castro examines the ways that Catholicism contributes to new perceptions of self and the development of new values and styles of family life.
In chapter 3, Philip Williams outlines the ways that religion has contributed to the literal as well as metaphorical reconstruction of community in Yungay, an Andean town rebuilt in the wake of a devastating earthquake and avalanche in Williams shows how the accelerated process of rural-urban migration, the agrarian reform program in the countryside, and the influx of foreign priests and religious all stimulated new pastoral initiatives that often conflicted with traditional approaches.
For many, "being Christian" implied not only church involvement but also a commitment to work for social justice, which propelled them to become active participants in an array of community-based organizations. In former war zones in El Salvador, diverse churches have contributed to repairing the fabric of civil society torn apart by the war, as Ileana Gomez shows in chapter 6.
Political repression during the late s and s virtually destroyed community life in Morazan, including the religious as well as economic and physical networks that had sustained rural life.
Part 3 focuses on globalization and transnationalism. However, the challenges of organizing the festivities outside Peru have led the brotherhoods to modify some key ritual aspects, like allowing women to carry the image of the saint during the annual procession. This in turn has altered the balance of power between men and women within the brotherhoods in North America and also in Peru as immigrants visit sister organizations in lima.
Ruiz Baia examines the various relations, formal and informal, institutional and personal, involved in forging transnational linkages. However, most important is how she problematizes the concept of transnationalism by pointing to the interpenetration of transnationalism, cosmopolitanism, and pan-ethnicity among Latino immigrants. In chapter 8, Ileana Gomez and Manuel Vasquez examine the growth of transnational gangs, often associated with violence and organized crime, in El Salvador and in U.
These links are particularly tricky for young, second-generation Latinos, who are often "bifocal," as Roger Rouse puts it, dwelling simultaneously in two cultures. The parallels to Pentecostalism may be especially strong in the United States, where Latino Catholics find themselves in an environment that sees success as issuing from a Protestant ethic.
However, the CCR is not a mere copy of Pentecostalism. Religion and the Economic Order: We can draw insights from Max Weber to demonstrate that religious ideas can change the economic order. On the other hand, if we carefully understand Karl Marxit is possible to argue that religion can stabilize an exploitative, miserable economic order.
That is to say that the role of religion in society, of which it is an important subsystem, is capable of great harmony and integration; but it can also be a major factor in creating conflict as in fundamentalism.
Max Weber on Religion: In the eyes of Max Weber, religious ideas can act as powerful force in determining the course of the economic order. The doctrines of the Protestant sects, in particular Calvinism, created new attitudes toward work, money and pleasure. These new doctrines marked a significant departure from what has been hitherto preached by the Catholic Church.
These doctrines were accepted by the emerging classes in Europe, after the breakdown of feudal order, which combined hard work with asceticism.
In other words, believers of these Protestant doctrines worked hard but restrained themselves from material pleasures and luxury.
Essay on the Relation between Religion and Social Change ( Words)
This resulted in the accumulation of wealth capitalwhich spurred the growth of rational industrial capitalism. According to the doctrine of Predestination, breached by Calvin, God has already chosen some human beings and angels into everlasting life, for his own glory and in his own interests.
Those who are not selected are predestined to everlasting death. The most significant aspect of this doctrine is that human beings cannot know the will of God. But there is no answer for them. To attain this trust, intense wordly activity was recommended as the most suitable means. A Calvinist has to prove his faith through worldly activity.
Analyse and Evaluate the relationships between religion and social change.
He has to understand himself as a tool of divine will, and has to indulge in worldly activity for the greater glory of God. For a puritan, who earned money but abstained from luxury and pleasure, generating wealth was an end in itself. It is clear that doctrine of Calvin created a situation where abstemious values and norms meant that there was a great saving of wealth which was put back into the work.
This resulted in a tremendous economic boost to the society concerned and made Calvinism a set of beliefs which were very positive towards economic growth. Thus certain doctrines of Protestant sects changed the attitude of believers towards work, money and pleasure which in turn led to the accumulation of capital, necessary for the emergence of rational industrial capitalism.
Whereas Max Weber viewed religious ethic of the Protestant sects as having aided the spirit of capitalism, Karl Marx argues that religion is an ideology of the ruling elite. Marx developed his understanding of religion mainly from Prussia. In Prussia, the state defended the Protestant Christian religion.
Protestant Christian religion, in that context, acted as an ideology for the new class which arose at the breakup of feudalism in Europe. Since Protestantism helped the growth of capitalism, the State of Prussia supported it. Marx also argued that religion is an illusion which veils the real exploitative conditions in society.
At the same time, religion is a mode of protest, albeit a misdirected protest, adopted by those who are oppressed and exploited.
To add further, religion is a form of alienation, characteristic of the capitalist society. Religion is a direct outcome of the exploitative conditions in society, and hence religion can be discarded only by changing the exploitative social condition i. Thus for Karl Marx, religion is an illusion, a form of alienation and misdirected protest. Religion stabilizes, the social order, by veiling the exploitation and misery of the capitalist economic order.
Religion and the Political Order: Religion can change the political order as well as preserve it.
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Assuming that political order includes the mode of exercise of power and authority, various categories like the State, Nation and Sovereignty creep into our analysis. Every religion has a political idea, a sense of community; a mode of power and authority; a particular understanding of sovereignty. Every religion has a specific conception of politics, whose interpretation may change from time to time, no matter whether this conception is actualised in reality or not.
Religion on social change Essay
In this sense, there cannot be a strict separation of religion from politics for religion at times has to be this wordly as well. As you are aware, in the Hindu caste system, Kshatriya is the ruler and his dharma is to protect and conserve the social order.
At a theoretical level, one finds a clear separation of spirituality and power, and power being subordinated to spirituality.
But at the level of practice, this is a questionable postulate. In fact, the tension between spirituality and power, State and the religion, can be presented as a universal dilemma. During the medieval ages in Europe 8th to 15th centurymany kings and by implication, their kingdoms clearly remained subordinated to the authority of the Pope who is the spiritual head of the Roman Catholic Church.
The situation changed in Europe, after the Reformation, and rulers became the head of their respective national churches. The many fundamentalist and revivalist movements which are arising all over the world are also defining their own idea of a political state.
The fundamentalist and revivalist are re-interpreters of religion. They go back to, what they consider to be pure, original code of religious behaviour, which involves a total world- view. With the intention of restoring these authentic values the fundamentalists ignore all other values. Islam, for example, is particularly clear about the conduct of the Muslim community. The universe of a Muslim is circumscribed by his or her religion, were politics and religion are inseparable.
The resurgence of Islam is recent decades witnesses this linkage.